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Digital Literacy and protection of data for ICH professionals


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Goals

GoalsClick to read  

  • Choose the best method for planning and conducting the data search

  • List some tools and criteria for evaluating digital content and sources

  • Examine the use of Software Applications regarding data, information and digital content management

  • Explore effective methods of managing information and preserving  digital content

  • Understand privacy policies and data protection regulation

  • Identify principles, rights and obligations in reference with ICH approach to privacy issues and processing personal data

Digital literacy and business communication

Digital Literacy and Business Communication: IndexClick to read  

- Methods on analyzing and critically evaluate the data, information and digital content

- The AAOCC (Authority, Accuracy, Objectivity, Currency, and Coverage) system

- CRAAP test: a tool for evaluating sources

- Management of digital material and databases

- Preservation and updating of digital content

Methods on Analysing and Critically Evaluating the data, information and digital content Click to read  

Finding quality digital content

  • When you plan the search some things need to be considered:

  • What is the inquiry question you are trying to answer or topic you are exploring

  • The information you already have

  • What information you need

  • The type of information you need, for example, an overview, detailed analysis/research, or statistics

  • How much information you need — what gaps are there in your knowledge

Where to search for digital content

There are various sources for quality content:

• National Libraries

• Open Educational Resources (OER)

• DiscoverEd: https://discovered.ed.ac.uk/ 
• Open Courseware Consortium: http://www.oeconsortium.org/courses/search/

Evaluation

Ensuring that digital content is meaningful:

• Look critically at information to determine its relevance, suitability and reliability
• Be critical and sceptical about sources and information to ensure authenticity
• Check for accuracy, validity and currency as measures of information quality
• Make sure all information and resources are fit for purpose

 

The AAOCC (Authority, Accuracy, Objectivity, Currency, and Coverage) systemClick to read  

Criteria for evaluating digital content

 

 1. Accuracy and Authority of Web Documents 

Ask Yourself…

  • You check for accuracy when you find an author or publisher to take responsibility for the information. If the author provides contact information such as email, address and/or phone number, he/she takes responsibility.

  • If research is being used, the author should provide a bibliography that supports what he/she is saying; this also helps the reader determine accuracy.

  • If there is no author given, determine if the page is associated with or published by a group or organization that is taking responsibility. The domain name may give clues to this. 

  • Once you know who is responsible, check to see his/her credentials give the person authority to publish the information. What are the qualifications that this person or organization possess and are they prominent enough to be trusted?

  • The purpose of the document should be clear. Why was it produced?

  • The information needs to make sense and should be something that can be verified. Text should be free of errors and feel reliable.

  •  Who is the author?

  • Is there an address, phone number or email given? (Some way to contact author)

  • Who publishes the website? A publisher? An organization? A group with a biased viewpoint?

  • What is the URL and what does this tell you about the publisher of the site?  .gov? .org? .net? .edu

  • What qualifications does the author have? Or what qualifies the group to publish such information?

  • Is the information verifiable?

  • Is the text free of errors, well written and cited properly?

 

 

 2. Objectivity of Web Documents

Ask Yourself…

 

  • The goals and objectives of the document should be made clear.

  • The page should be objective or unbiased about the subject covered. Bias should be stated as such.

  • If the author’s opinions are stated, they should be well substantiated and should not be presented as fact.

  • The motives of the piece should be transparent.

  • View each webpage as if it were an Infommercial on television—be skeptical.

 

  • Is the page a mask for advertising; if so, how might the information be biased?

  • Why was the page written (motives)?

  • Who is the intended audience?

  • Are opinions backed by accurate facts and information?

 

3. Currency of Web Documents

Ask Yourself…

  •  The information should be up to date and there should be an indication that someone is taking care of the site. For example, if a number of the links no longer work, this is one way to tell.
  • When was it produced? Last updated?

  • How many dead links are there?

  • Is the information outdated?

 

 

4. Coverage of Web Documents

Ask Yourself…

  • There is breadth and/or depth to the topics covered.You should have not problem viewing the information properly—not limited to fees, browser technology, or software requirement.

  • Is there breadth and/or depth to the topics covered?

  • Is the information free or is there a fee to obtain information?

  • Are you able to view the page or is software missing? Is that software free?

 

CRAAP test: a tool for evaluating sourcesClick to read  

CurrencyRelevanceAuthorityAccuracyPurpose

 

 CurrencyRelevanceAuthorityAccuracyPurpose

The timeliness of the information:

  • When was the information published or posted?

  • Has the information been revised or updated?

  • Is the information current or out-of date for your topic?

  • Are the links functional?

 CurrencyRelevanceAuthorityAccuracyPurpose

The importance of the information for your needs:

  • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?

  • Who is the intended audience?

  • Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?

  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?

  • Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?

I CurrencyRelevanceAuthorityAccuracyPurpose  

  • The source of the information:

  • Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?

  • Are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations given?

  • What are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations given?

  • What are the author's qualifications to write on the topic?

  • Is there contact information, such as a publisher or e-mail address?

  • Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source? 

- examples:

 - .com (commercial), .edu (educational), .gov (U.S. government)
 - .org (nonprofit organization), or
 - .net (network)

CurrencyRelevanceAuthorityAccuracyPurpose  

The reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the content:

  • Where does the information come from?

  • Is the information supported by evidence?

  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed?

  • Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?

  • Does the language or tone seem biased and free of emotion?

  • Are there spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?

I CurrencyRelevanceAuthorityAccuracyPurpose  

The reason the information exists:

  • What is the purpose of the information? to inform? teach? sell? entertain? persuade?

  • Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?

  • Is the information fact? opinion? propaganda?

  • Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?

  • Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional, or personal biases?

Management of digital material and databasesClick to read  

I Digital Content Management
• Deals with the storage, organization, indexing and curation of the digital content used by an organization
• Digital content can take many forms including text files, documents, graphics, images, animations and audio and video files
 
I Digital Content Management Tools and Technology
• Content Management System (CMS)
- To organize and publish content, usually to a customer-facing website or internet site
- For e-commerce
- To automate marketing tasks like scheduling emails and posting blog content

• Digital Asset Management System (DAM) 

  - To store and organize content internally

  - To manage original media files which are more memory intensive, store files related to a specific project, or make it easier for teams to collaborate

 

Digital preservation strategies

• A properly deliberated documentation method for the preservation of digital  contents

• Thibodeau,  (2002)  suggests  four measures when choosing a preservation strategy: 

- Feasibility: ownership of application software and hardware devices proficient in fulfilling the selected scheme for preservation 

- Sustainability:  selected  scheme  must  be  proficient  enough  to  apply  indeterminately  into  the  future prospect, or there must be an alternative route if selected methods stop functioning

- Practicality: selected  method  must be  rational  with  respect difficulty in  implementation  and return  on investment 

- Appropriateness:  selected  method  must  be  appropriate for the specific  forms  of digital  items  to  be safeguarded and preserved

 

Methods for effective management and preservation

• Investment Strategies:

- Usage of standards: includes using universally accepted standards

- Data abstraction and structuring: consists of examining and labeling data to enable functions, relations and organization of specific elements that can be labeled

- Encapsulation: assembling all digital objects and metadata essential to define and provide access to a gathered object

- Restricting formats: store restricted array of formats

- Universal Virtual Computer (UVC): performs the archived decoder program to read the archived contents and output the results into a restored program

• Short-term Digital Preservation Strategies:

- Technology Preservation: sustaining old OS and application
software which do not function on present platform

- Backward compatibility: constructing software or hardware capable to read older versions of documents

- Migration: transforming data from a format that is becoming obsolete to another newer format 

• Medium to long-term digital preservation strategies:

- Viewers and migration:delivers access to software tool by means of an original data stream

- Emulation: is the process of creating the virtual environment in which the original documents files are created

• Alternative strategies:

- Analogue methods: ‘print out’ the items onto comparatively constant analogue media i.e. paper and microfilm

- Data archaeology: converting data as bits from physical media accompanied by steps to reestablish the accessibility of the recuperated data

• Combinations:

- of the methods

Preservation and updating of digital contentClick to read  

Digital preservation strategies

• A properly deliberated documentation method for the preservation of digital  contents

• Thibodeau,  (2002)  suggests  four measures when choosing a preservation strategy: 

- Feasibility: ownership of application software and hardware devices proficient in fulfilling the selected scheme for preservation 

- Sustainability:  selected  scheme  must  be  proficient  enough  to  apply  indeterminately  into  the  future prospect, or there must be an alternative route if selected methods stop functioning

- Practicality: selected  method  must be  rational  with  respect difficulty in  implementation  and return  on investment 

- Appropriateness:  selected  method  must  be  appropriate for the specific  forms  of digital  items  to  be safeguarded and preserved

 

Methods for effective management and preservation

• Investment Strategies:

- Usage of standards: includes using universally accepted standards

- Data abstraction and structuring: consists of examining and labeling data to enable functions, relations and organization of specific elements that can be labeled

- Encapsulation: assembling all digital objects and metadata essential to define and provide access to a gathered object

- Restricting formats: store restricted array of formats

- Universal Virtual Computer (UVC): performs the archived decoder program to read the archived contents and output the results into a restored program

• Short-term Digital Preservation Strategies:

- Technology Preservation: sustaining old OS and application
software which do not function on present platform

- Backward compatibility: constructing software or hardware capable to read older versions of documents

- Migration: transforming data from a format that is becoming obsolete to another newer format 

• Medium to long-term digital preservation strategies:

- Viewers and migration:delivers access to software tool by means of an original data stream

- Emulation: is the process of creating the virtual environment in which the original documents files are created

• Alternative strategies:

- Analogue methods: ‘print out’ the items onto comparatively constant analogue media i.e. paper and microfilm

- Data archaeology: converting data as bits from physical media accompanied by steps to reestablish the accessibility of the recuperated data

• Combinations:

- of the methods

 

Resources

• Lekakis, S. (2020). Cultural heritage in the realm of the commons. London: Ubiquity Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/bcj
Data protection, sustainability and knowledge transfer

Data protection, sustainability and knowledge transfer: indexClick to read  

  • Ensuring compliance with the GDPR

  • Taking into account the fair treatment of individuals

Ensuring compliance with the GDPRClick to read  

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

 

• The GDPR sets out detailed requirements for companies and organizations on
- collecting
- storing
- managing personal data.
• It applies both to European organizations that process personal data of individuals in the EU, and to organizations outside the EU that target people living in the EU.

 

I Personal Data

• Any information about an identified or identifiable person, also known as the data subject

- Name (e.g George Papadopoulos)

- Address (e.g. Spring, 23, Post Code 26335)

- ID card/passport number (e.g. 36000020)

- Income (e.g. $5000)

- Cultural profile (e.g. roma)

- Internet Protocol (IP) address (192.168.20.10)

- Data held by a hospital or doctor (which uniquely identifies a person for health purposes) (e.g. blood pressure).

 

I  Special (sensitive) categories of personal data 

• Information on:

- An individual’s health

- Race

- Sexual orientation

- Religion

- Political beliefs

• This data can be processed under specific conditions and additional safeguards, such as encryption that may need to be implemented

I  Who processes and monitors personal data

 

I  When is data processing allowed?

• According  to  the  GDPR, a company can only process personal data under certain  conditions. Company must ensure one of the following, it:

 

- Has been given the consent of the individual concerned

- Needs the personal data to fulfil a contractual obligation with the individual

- Needs the personal data to satisfy a legal obligation

- Needs the personal data to protect the vital interests of the individual

- Processes personal data to carry out the task in the interest of the public

- Is acting in its legitimate interests, as long as the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual whose data are processed are not seriously impacted. If the person's rights override your company's interests, then you cannot process the personal data.

Taking into account the fair treatment of individualsClick to read  

Obligations

- Providing transparent information

- Right to access and right to data portability

- Right to erasure (right to be forgotten)

- Right to correct and right to object

- Appoint a Data Protection Officer (DPO)

- Data protection by design and default

-Providing proper notification in the case of a data breach

 

Privacy Policy

A privacy policy is a statement or legal document that discloses some or all of the ways a party gathers, uses, discloses, and manages a customer or client's data. right to access and right to data portability.

Example: the privacy policy of UNESCO refers to an overview of what will happen with your personal data when you visit the website of the organization.

 

I Resources

Summing Up

Summing UpClick to read  

Test Yourself!

Related Case Studies:

- UNESCO Privacy Policy




Description:

• Learning Outcome 1: List the best method for planning the data search.
• Learning Outcome 2: Choose the appropriate keywords for searching.
• Learning Outcome 3: List some tools for evaluating digital content.
• Learning Outcome 4: Name four criteria when evaluating internet sources.
• Learning Outcome 5: Prepare at least five questions in evaluating the credibility of an information source.
• Learning Outcome 6: Examine the use of Software Applications regarding data, information and digital content management.
• Learning Outcome 7: Explore effective methods of managing information and preserving digital content.
• Learning Outcome 8: Understand privacy policies and data protection regulation
• Learning Outcome 9: Identify principles, rights and obligations in reference with ICH approach to privacy issues and processing personal data.


Keywords

Evaluating data, Internet sources, Managing digital content, General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Personal Data, Data protection and priv&


Objectives/goals:

• Methods on analyzing and critically evaluate the data, information and digital content. CRAAP test.
• The AAOCC (Authority, Accuracy, Objectivity, Currency, and Coverage) system
• Management of digital material and databases
• Preservation and updating of digital content
• Ensuring compliance with the GDPR
• Take into account the fair treatment of individuals.


Bibliography

Corporate-Body.EAC:Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture. (2019, June 3). Fostering cooperation in the European Union on skills, training and knowledge transfer in cultural heritage professions. Publication Office of the EU. https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/e38e8bb3-867b-11e9-9f05-01aa75ed71a1/language-en

Drexel University. (n.d.). Digital content management industry overview. College of Computing & Informatics. Retrieved August 13, 2021, from https://drexel.edu/cci/academics/graduate-programs/digital-content-management/

European Commission. (2018). The GDPR: New opportunities, new obligations. European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/data-protection-factsheet-sme-obligations_en.pdf

Kapoun, J. (1998). Teaching undergrads WEB evaluation: A guide for library instruction. C&RL News (July/August 1998): 522-523.

Lekakis, S. (2020). Cultural heritage in the realm of the commons. London: Ubiquity Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/bcj

National Library of New Zealand. (n.d.). Digital content — Finding, evaluating, using and creating it. Services to Schools. Retrieved August 13, 2021, from https://natlib.govt.nz/schools/digital-literacy/strategies-for-developing-digital-literacy/digital-content-finding-evaluating-using-and-creating-it

Shimray, S. R., & Ramaiah, C. K. (2018, August). Digital preservation strategies: an overview. In 11th National Conference on Recent Advances in Information Technology (READIT-2018), IGCAR, Kalpakam, Tamilnadu (pp. 8-9).



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